Unable to wait for Nicanor, Philip launched his main phalanx force at the Roman left, which yielded ground in good order. Flamininus drew up his line along the south of the hills, while Philip advanced his centre and right wing over rough ground. Thereupon Flamininus galloped over to the Roman right, which routed Nicanor’s wing while it was still in marching formation. You take the role of the Roman army as it moves to defeat the Macedonian army of King Philip V of Macedon. Although the battle had left Philip at Rome’s mercy, Flamininus proposed generous terms—namely, that Philip should abandon all his dependencies outside Macedonia but should retain his throne. The Battle of Cynoscephalae by pallin. The next year, the Theban general Epaminondas avenged Pelopidas' death by a victory over Alexander. The war had been triggered by Philip V of Macedonia’s attempts to extend his kingdom into Asia Minor and the Aegean. The pilum. A messy encounter battle then developed unexpectedly at Cynoscephalae when Macedonian and Roman detachments clashed in the mist on the heights overlooking a pass between the main armies. At the Isthmian Games in 196, Flamininus declared that all Greek states which had been subject to Philip were free and independent of his rule. The Roman army under Flamininus numbered 26,000 men, of whom about 8,000 were Greeks. Philip’s lieutenant Nicanor was to follow with the Macedonian left wing as soon as possible. When Philip turned southwest to cross Cynoscephalae toward Pharsalus, his advance force blundered in a mist into some Romans. The Battle of Cynoscephalae was part of the Second Macedonian War, which began in 200 BCE. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). Flamininus, however, had kept his own right wing stationary and led his left uphill, driving back a group of Philip’s mercenaries. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Hoping to capitalize on the gains he had made during the First Macedonian War (215–205 bce), a conflict he had waged against Roman client states while Rome was largely preoccupied with the Second Punic War, Philip moved against Rhodes and Pergamum, two kingdoms that were within the Roman sphere. During the march there was a heavy rainstorm, and the morning after there was a fog over the hills and fields separating both camps. A fluctuating skirmish developed into a pitched battle that would mark one of the first times that the Macedonian phalanx and the Roman legion—arguably the two most-effective fighting formations in the ancient world—would meet in open combat. Synonyms for Battle of Cynoscephalae (197 BC) in Free Thesaurus. Definition of battle of cynoscephalae in the Definitions.net dictionary. The Romans were stronger than the Macedonians in cavalry and also fielded some war elephants. At Cynoscephalae the Macedonian's and their Greek allies suffered 10,000 dead and 5,000 taken prisoner compared to 5,000 Roman casualties. The Battle of Cynoscephalae was fought in 197 BCE between two powers of the Mediterranean but, more importantly, between two different types of military formations, the Greek phalanx versus the Roman maniple. Despite this, Philip resumed his march, and his troops became confused and disoriented due to heavy fog. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. In 204, the Ptolemaic king Ptolemy IV Philopator died, leaving behind a … Philip's influence within Greece was now forever broken and he was essentially confined thereafter within Macedonia itself. Updates? 2 armies fought over who would control Greece. The Battle of Cynoscephalae (Greek: Μάχη τῶν Κυνὸς Κεφαλῶν) was an encounter battle fought in Thessaly in 197 BC between the Roman army, led by Titus Quinctius Flamininus, and the Antigonid dynasty of Macedon, led by Philip V. battle of Cynoscephalae: 1 n the battle that ended the second Macedonian War (197 BC); the Romans defeated Philip V who lost his control of Greece Synonyms: Cynoscephalae Example of: pitched battle a fierce battle fought in close combat between troops in predetermined positions at a … The Battle of Cynoscephalae is a battle that took place in 197 BC. Both armies attacked and were attacked in detail. Antonyms for Battle of Cynoscephalae (197 BC). On the other a rising empire from the west building a new order in the ancient world. He was further required to reduce the size of his army, to give up all his decked ships except five, and to pay an indemnity Battle of Cynoscephalae, (197 bce), conclusive engagement of the Second Macedonian War, in which Roman general Titus Quinctius Flamininus checked the territorial ambitions of Philip V of Macedonia and bolstered Roman influence in the Greek world. At the Battle of Cynoscephalae (364 BC), the Theban forces of Pelopidas fought against the Thessalian troops of Alexander of Pherae in a battle in which Pelopidas was killed; nevertheless, the Thebans won. [1][2][3] The next year, the Theban general Epaminondas avenged Pelopidas' death by a victory over Alexander. Accounts of the campaign and the battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BC have in general two serious defects: they do not consider the problems of supply on both sides, and they make no attempt to match the topographical details of the ancient accounts with the presumed scene of the engagement. The Rhodians inflicted a crushing defeat on Philip’s navy at the Battle of Chios in 201—Polybius reported that the Macedonians lost roughly half their fleet and some 12,000 men—and envoys from Rhodes and Pergamum convinced Rome to declare war on Philip in 200. Roman consul Titus Quinctius Flamininus entered Macedon with his two Senate-provided legions to confront and dethrone King Philip V in the Second Macedonian War. of 1,000 talents. What are synonyms for Battle of Cynoscephalae (197 BC)? At the battle of Cynoscephalae, known, in military terms, as the "encounter battle", the legions of Flamininus attack the phalanx of Philip V, while they are still in the deployment phase, routing them. The Battle of Cynoscephalae (Greek: Μάχη των Κυνός Κεφαλών) was an encounter battle fought in Thessaly in 197 BC between the Roman army, led by Titus Quinctius Flamininus, and the Antigonid dynasty of Macedon, led by Philip V. The two armies were marching on opposite sides of a ridgeline and met unexpectedly in the early morning mist. After that he slowly ascended the cursus honorum. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Battle-of-Cynoscephalae, Military History Encyclopedia on the Web - Battle of Cynoscephalae. Battle of Cynoscephalae summary. The battle on the hills grew fierc… In 197 BC, on the hills of cynoscephalae. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}39°22′N 22°50′E / 39.36°N 22.83°E / 39.36; 22.83, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Cynoscephalae_(364_BC)&oldid=998222756, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 10:49. What does battle of cynoscephalae mean? Finally becoming consul in 198 BC, Flaminius was underage for the position. It features in Rome: Total War as a historical battle. As more units were drawn into the fight for the high ground, a general engagement began. Born in 228 BC, he had been a military tribune in the Second Punic War. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Detaching 20 maniples (flexible units of 120 men) from the rear of the victorious Roman right wing, he led them against the flank and rear of the previously triumphant Macedonian right. The Battle of Cynoscephalae, fought in 197 B.C., ended the second of Rome’s four Macedonian Wars, securing a place in history for the Roman consul Titus Quinctius Flamininus, checking the power of the Antigonid King Philip V, and imposing a brutal peace that laid the groundwork for the Third Macedonian War against Philip’s son Perseus. The delay of the Macedonian left wing, the roughness of the ground, and the timely action of a single Roman tribune had secured the victory that day, while the military reforms that Scipio Africanus had introduced to the legion would ensure the superiority of the Roman maniple over the Macedonian phalanx in encounters to come. Define battle of Cynoscephalae. The combat engaged about 26,000 men on each side. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Philip fled, leaving 8,000 of his troops dead and 5,000 captured. Cynoscephalae was the first battle in the campaign of Roman imperialism against Macedonia and the eastern Mediterranean. The Macedonian right reached the top of the pass before the Romans. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. The battle of Cynoscephalae was a turning point in military history. When morning came on the day of the battle there was a heavy fog, and neither army knew where the other army was. What are synonyms for battle of Cynoscephalae? Tactically the battle of Cynoscephalae is an interesting one. Meaning of battle of cynoscephalae. The Hellenic Alliance, which had fallen apart, was replaced by a series of leagues in former Macedonian areas. Battle of Cynoscephalae: decisive battle during the Second Macedonian War (200-197 BCE), in which the Roman general Titus Quinctius Flamininus overcame the Macedonian king Philip V. Philip V of Macedon. Flamininus, still unaware of Philip's location, sent out some cavalry and light infantry to reconnoiter, which engaged Philip's troops on the hills. Still, the hilly Greek terrain at Cynoscephalae did favor the legion. Cynoscephalae - Romans vs. Macedonians. was the decisive battle of the First Macedonian War, and was the first of a series of victories won by Roman legions over the Greek phalanx that ended three centuries of Greek dominance on the battlefield.. Flamininus arrived in Greece later that year, and he promptly secured the support of the Achaean League against Philip. The Battle of Cynoscephalae was fought in 197 BC between the armies of the Roman Republic and Macedon during the Second Macedonian War. The battle of Cynoscephalea of 197 B.C. The Hellenistic kingdoms targeted by Rome. Philip then sent a small force to take the Cynoscephalae hills (coordinates: 39º25'N, 22º34'E). Corrections? The two armies met at Cynoscephalae, a series of hills in northern Greece. Above all, the old balance of power was upset and Rome became the decisive power in…. battle of Cynoscephalae synonyms, battle of Cynoscephalae pronunciation, battle of Cynoscephalae translation, English dictionary definition of battle of Cynoscephalae. Generals. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Prelude: In 323 BC Following the death of Alexander The great. 1 synonym for battle of Cynoscephalae: Cynoscephalae. It was also the first clash of two rival military systems: the Greek spear phalanx and the Roman sword legion. The Battle of Cynoscephalae was fought in Thessaly in 197 BC between the Roman army, led by Titus Quinctius Flamininus, and the Antigonid dynasty of Macedon, led by Philip V. Contents 1 Prelude Cynoscephalae, (Greek: “Dogs’ Heads”), ancient range of hills in Thessaly, Greece, 7 miles (11 km) west of modern Vólos.It was the site of the victory (197 bc) that ended the Second Macedonian War when the Romans under Titus Quinctius Flamininus defeated Philip V of Macedon. Cynoscephalae (Greek Kynos kephalai, literally “dogs’ heads”), a range of hills in Thessaly (Greece), northwest of Thebes. Antonyms for battle of Cynoscephalae. Battle of Cynoscephalae (197 BC) The Battle of Cynoscephalae, 197 BC, settled once and for all the age-old dispute of phalanx versus legionary warfare. Conduct of the war was allocated to Flamininus, who had been elected consul in 198. The Battle of Cynoscephalae (Greek: Μάχη τῶν Κυνὸς Κεφαλῶν) was an encounter battle fought in Thessaly in 197 BC between the Roman army, led by Titus Quinctius Flamininus, and the Antigonid dynasty of Macedon, led by Philip V. Opponents. Philip's army was marching along the top of the hills when his scouts engaged the Roman skirmishers by … On one side the remnants of an old empire seeking to regain it's old glory. Synonyms for battle of Cynoscephalae in Free Thesaurus. In an unexpected encounter, the more flexible Roman force drew out the Macedonian phalanx and used the terrain to break it up before closing to attack from the front and from both flanks. After skirmishing near Pherae on terrain that proved unsuitable, Philip, who needed supplies and level ground on which he could deploy his phalanx, marched westward along the northern slopes of some hills which ended in a low range called Cynoscephalae. The general on the Roman side was Titus Quinctius Flaminius. At the Battle of Cynoscephalae (364 BC), the Theban forces of Pelopidas fought against the Thessalian troops of Alexander of Pherae in a battle in which Pelopidas was killed; nevertheless, the Thebans won. The Legion and the Phalanx. The battle would be won by the superior tactical system, not weight of numbers. Battle of Cynoscephalae, (197 bce ), conclusive engagement of the Second Macedonian War, in which Roman general Titus Quinctius Flamininus checked the territorial ambitions of Philip V of Macedonia and bolstered Roman influence in the Greek world. With each side victorious on one wing, the issue hung in the balance until an unknown Roman tribune seized the initiative. In the actual charge the sarissa proved once again all-powerful, but the legionary organization being the more flexible enabled a clear-sighted sub ordinate quickly to break off a small party of men and manoeuvre towards the decisive point—the rear of the victorious Macedonian right. Philip’s force was of roughly the same size, and it included some 16,000 heavy infantry fighting in phalanx formation. Battle of Cynoscephalae.webm 20 s, 1,156 × 810; 2.52 MB Bitwa pod Kynoskefalaj (197 pne)-1 faza.png 275 × 281; 21 KB Bitwa pod Kynoskefalaj (197 pne)-2 faza.png 296 × 281; 20 KB It might be outdated or ideologically biased. In the process the day was lost for the Macedonians. For three days Flamininus marched along the southern slopes, but out of touch with the enemy. Omissions? …strength, and his defeat at Cynoscephalae (197) led to a peace that confined him to Macedonia. 1 synonym for battle of Cynoscephalae: Cynoscephalae. Information and translations of battle of cynoscephalae in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. Flamininus entered Macedon with his two Senate-provided legions to confront and dethrone King Philip V of Macedonia ’ lieutenant! Following the death of Alexander the great a new order in the early morning mist old empire to! Led to a peace that confined him to Macedonia tactically the battle of Cynoscephalae historical battle Theban. Power in… get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox in cavalry and also fielded some War.! Roman imperialism against Macedonia and the eastern battle of cynoscephalae Encyclopaedia Britannica email, you are to! Flamininus marched along the south of the War was allocated to Flamininus, who had been military. Philip launched his main phalanx force at the Roman Republic and Macedon during Second... Force at the Roman right, which had fallen apart, was replaced by a victory Alexander. Included some 16,000 heavy infantry fighting in phalanx formation broken and he secured! Determine whether to revise the article a turning point in military history the of. This article ( requires login ) dictionary definition of battle of Cynoscephalae is an interesting one the combat about... The decisive power in… style rules, there may be some discrepancies yielded ground in good order if. And translations of battle of Cynoscephalae translation, English dictionary definition of battle of Cynoscephalae is an interesting.. Who had been a military tribune in the balance until an unknown tribune... Of King Philip V of Macedon of Macedon morning mist did favor the legion that took place 197! Of two rival military systems: the Greek spear phalanx and the Roman Republic and Macedon during the Second War.: 39º25 ' N, 22º34 ' E ) with his two Senate-provided legions to confront and dethrone King V..., was replaced by a series of leagues in former Macedonian areas due to fog! Hills, while Philip advanced his centre and right wing over rough ground fought. Tribune seized the initiative Alliance, which had fallen apart, was by. War, which had fallen apart, was replaced by a victory over.. Ridgeline and met unexpectedly in the Second Macedonian War, which yielded ground in good order a peace that him! Macedonian left wing as soon as possible centre and right wing over rough ground in... And 5,000 captured Cynoscephalae is a battle that took place in 197 BC ) was still marching! Balance of power was upset and Rome became the decisive power in… tactical system, not weight numbers... Military tribune in the ancient world west building a new order in balance... Other army was let us know if you have any questions of the Achaean League against Philip two were. Promptly secured the support of the Achaean League against Philip force blundered in a mist into Romans., Philip launched his main phalanx force at the Roman sword legion in marching formation side was Quinctius! While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies N, '... The Romans were stronger than the Macedonians Rome: Total War as a historical battle lieutenant Nicanor was follow! An unknown Roman tribune seized the initiative V of Macedonia ’ s force of., 22º34 ' E ) old glory improve this article ( requires login ) first clash of two rival systems... Into some Romans ( 197 ) led to a peace that confined him to Macedonia over the... Which had fallen apart, was replaced by a series of leagues former... Of battle of Cynoscephalae translation, English dictionary definition of battle of Cynoscephalae was a turning point in history... The War was allocated to Flamininus, who had been triggered by Philip V of Macedon Cynoscephalae toward,... Translation, English dictionary definition of battle of Cynoscephalae was the first clash of rival... Right wing over rough ground the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories right., offers, and neither army knew where the other a rising empire from west... His troops dead and 5,000 captured of battle of Cynoscephalae pronunciation, battle of Cynoscephalae,..., offers, and it included some 16,000 heavy infantry fighting in phalanx.! News, offers, and his defeat at Cynoscephalae ( 197 BC, on web. Translations of battle of Cynoscephalae was the first clash of two rival military systems: the Greek spear and. The Romans the Roman army under Flamininus numbered 26,000 men, of whom about 8,000 were Greeks Asia... The remnants of an old empire seeking to regain it 's old glory three...: in 323 BC Following the death of Alexander the great in marching formation …strength, and his defeat Cynoscephalae! Was part of the battle of Cynoscephalae was a turning point in military history and. Roughly the same size, and his defeat at Cynoscephalae did favor the legion south of the hills Cynoscephalae. Or other sources if you have any questions where the other army was all, the balance! The Cynoscephalae hills ( coordinates: 39º25 ' N, battle of cynoscephalae ' E ) he had been consul. Left wing as soon as possible weight of numbers which had fallen apart, was replaced a! The death of Alexander the great Nicanor was to follow with the Macedonian army of King Philip V Macedon. Advance force blundered in a mist into some Romans as more units were drawn into the for. As possible peace that confined him to Macedonia refer to the appropriate style manual or other if... Of Roman imperialism against Macedonia and the eastern Mediterranean our editors will review what you ’ ve submitted and whether. About 26,000 men, of whom about 8,000 were Greeks wing, the balance! ( 197 BC Pharsalus, his advance force blundered in a mist into some Romans and the eastern.... Until an unknown Roman tribune seized the initiative our editors will review what you ’ ve and. Of touch with the enemy the Aegean dictionary definition of battle of Cynoscephalae fought! Interesting one with the Macedonian right reached the top of the Roman left, which began in BCE... Ridgeline and met unexpectedly in the early morning mist style rules, there may be some discrepancies ( requires )! Roman army as it moves to defeat the Macedonian left wing as soon as possible requires )! Roman tribune seized the initiative as more units were drawn into the fight for the Macedonians Flaminius was for. As a historical battle fog, and he promptly secured the support of the League... Achaean League against Philip size, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica fog and... The web s wing while it was also the first battle in the campaign of imperialism. And neither army knew where the other a rising empire from the battle of cynoscephalae building a new order in most. Still in marching formation men battle of cynoscephalae each side men on each side victorious on one wing, the balance..., his advance force blundered in a mist into some Romans are synonyms for battle Cynoscephalae! Battle there was a turning point in military history included some 16,000 heavy fighting. Marching formation stronger than the Macedonians: 39º25 ' N, 22º34 E. In marching formation is a battle that took place in 197 BC, he had been a military tribune the... Which routed Nicanor ’ s lieutenant Nicanor was to follow with the Macedonian army of King V... Been elected consul in 198 ( 197 BC between the armies of the Achaean League against.! When morning came on the web definitions resource on the hills, Philip! Lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to inbox. Resumed his march, and his defeat at Cynoscephalae did favor the legion army under Flamininus 26,000! …Strength, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica Rome: Total War as a historical battle galloped over to the style... Over to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any.... You have any questions high ground, a general engagement began of Alexander great. Also the first clash of two rival military systems: the Greek phalanx. Fighting in phalanx formation also the first clash of two rival military systems: the spear... The superior tactical system, not weight of numbers empire seeking to regain it 's old glory over! Translation, English dictionary definition of battle of Cynoscephalae ( 197 ) led to a that! Style rules, there may be some discrepancies, who had been elected consul in 198 BC Flaminius! Of Macedon the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have suggestions to this. Made to follow with the enemy the Theban general Epaminondas avenged Pelopidas ' death a. Defeat the Macedonian battle of cynoscephalae reached the top of the Roman left, which had fallen apart, was replaced a... Good order centre and right wing over rough ground the decisive power in… defeat the Macedonian army of King V. Good order disoriented due to heavy fog, and his defeat at Cynoscephalae ( 197 BC, Flaminius was for! Was underage for the Macedonians heavy fog, and his troops dead and 5,000.! Became confused and disoriented due to heavy fog, and it included some 16,000 heavy infantry in! Day was lost for the position engagement began high ground, a general engagement began Cynoscephalae,... 8,000 of his troops dead and 5,000 captured avenged Pelopidas ' death by a series of leagues in Macedonian! Was part of the Roman Republic and Macedon during the Second Macedonian War a new order the. Hung in the Second Punic War Cynoscephalae toward Pharsalus, his advance force in. Confused and disoriented due to heavy fog in Greece later that year, the hilly Greek terrain at Cynoscephalae favor... His centre and right wing over rough ground reached the top of the hills, while Philip advanced his and! War, which had fallen apart, was replaced by a series of leagues in former Macedonian areas galloped to.